Education In Nepal.

Education in Nepal was long based on home-schooling and gurukulas.The first formal school -(Durbar School), established by Jung Bahadur Rana-(Maharaja Jung Bahadur Rana was Prime Minister and virtual ruler of Nepal for approximately more than three decades between 1846 and 1877), in 1853, was intended for the first class people .After the establishment of Nepalese Democracy in 1951,its classrooms were opened to a more various citizen. ..Education in Nepal from the elementary school to the university level has been modeled from the very inception on the Indian system, which is in turn the legacy of the old British Raj. Nepal’s 1971 education plan hastened its development in the country. In 1951 Nepal had 10,000 students in 300 schools and an adult literacy rate of 5%.There were 49,000 schools in 2010, and by 2015 the overall adult literacy rate was 63.9 percent (males 76.4 percent and females 53.1 percent). It has already been more than half decade that public schools started imparting the education in the country. Curriculum developed in the country is not oriented towards the practical education. Public schools are criticized for not being able to provide quality education. Lower-caste discrimination, and indigenous bias are now the primary barriers to equitable access to education. After thorough review of secondary literature, analysis through macro perspective under the influence of critical pedagogy, the following problems were identified: lack of physical and infrastructures, textbooks, a unified national curriculum, monolingual instruction, and a lack of constructive and critical pedagogical strategies. Furthermore, poverty and social exclusion are the major factors contributing to poor performance.



The Ministry of Education is responsible for managing educational activities in Nepal. The Minister of Education (assisted by the state or assistant minister) is the political leader of the ministry. The ministry, as a part of the government, is headed by the Secretary of Education and consists of a central national office and other offices at the regional and district levels. The central office is primarily responsible for policy development, planning, monitoring, and evaluation.
The ministry has established directorates in each provinces/ regions and education offices in each of Nepal’s 76 districts to bring educational administration to the people. These decentralized offices are responsible for overseeing local informal and school-level educational activities. Regional directorates are primarily responsible for coordinating, monitoring and evaluating educational activities, and the district education offices provide services.


Primary education in Nepal called Basic Education consists of grades one through eight. Secondary levels are grades nine to twelve. Pre-primary education is available in some areas, and students usually begin grade one at age five. A Basic Level Examination (BLE) is given on grade eight while a national Secondary Education Examination (SEE) examination is conducted at the end of grade 10, while completing the Grade 12 examination leads to the School Leaver’s Certificate. The National Examinations Board (NEB) supervises all BLE, SEE and 12th grade exams.
University education leads successfully to the degrees of bachelor, master and doctor (Ph.D). Depending upon the educational stream and degree subject, a bachelor’s degree may require as much as three to five years of study, but two years is the typical duration. Some universities offer M.phill. and post-graduate diplomas.
Vocational education begins after lower secondary education, and students can follow a two-year curriculum leading to a Technical School Leaving Certificate. Universities also offer professional and technical degrees. In addition to the formal track, one-year programs focusing on skills development are also available. The District Level Examination is given in grade eight. The new educational system has two levels: basic (grades one through eight) and secondary (grades nine through twelve).


Nepal’s first college was Tri-Chandra College, founded in 1918. Until 1985, Tribhuvan University was the country’s only university. During the early 1980s, the government developed the concept of a multi-university system in which each school would have its own nature, content, and function.
The first new university was Mahendra Sanskrit University. It was followed by Kathmandu University (the first private university) in 1990 and Purbanchal and Pokhara Universities in 1995 and 1996, respectively.

Top Universities in Nepal In 2020:

1.Kathmandu University

2.Pokhara University

3.Tribhuvan University

4.Purbanchal University

5.Agriculture and foresty university

6.Mid Western University

7.Lumbini Buddhist University

8.Nepal Sanskrit University

9.Far Western University

Medical colleges

Medical colleges, mostly private, exist throughout Nepal. Local students are admitted after an entrance exam, and foreign students are admitted after an interview. To be eligible for admission to MBBS courses in Nepal’s medical colleges, students must pass the higher secondary examination in science or its equivalent. Medical education is regulated by the Medical Council of Nepal. In addition to accrediting the country’s medical colleges, the council conducts the licensing examination for new doctors, makes policies related to curriculum, admission, terms and examinations and makes registration recommendations.

 Some Medical Colleges of Nepal :  

1.Institute of Medicine (IOM)-Maharajgunj,Kathmandu

2.Universal Medical College (UCMS)-Bhairawaha
3.National Medical College(NMC)-Birgunj
4.Janaki Medical College ( Janakpur)
5.KIST Medical College-Lalitpur
6.Chitwan Medical college-Bharatpur
7.Gandaki medical college-Pokhara
8.Nepalese Army Institute of Health

Engineering colleges

Engineering colleges also exist throughout Nepal, with most admitting local students through an entrance exam. Like the country’s medical colleges, foreign students are admitted after an interview. To be eligible for admission to Nepalese engineering colleges, candidates are encouraged to pass the Intermediate in Science or have a diploma in engineering (or its equivalent).
The Institute of Engineering of Tribhuvan University is the country’s oldest engineering school. It has four colleges, and 13 private engineering colleges are affiliated with it. The IOE’s central campus (Pulchowk Campus) as well as Kathmandu university school of engineering are considered to be the best engineering college in Nepal. Pulchowk offers bachelor’s, master’s and Ph.D. degrees in engineering. More than 16,000 students from around the world take the school’s entrance examination.
Nepal Engineering College (NEC) in Changunarayan is the country’s first private engineering college to offer bachelor’s- and master’s-level courses. Popular engineering fields in Nepal are architecture, civil engineering, computer engineering, electronics and communications, electrical and electronics, energy and rural engineering. The B.E architecture courses take five years to complete, and other bachelor’s-degree courses take four years.

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